Cola is a sweet carbonated drink, usually with caramel coloring and containing caffeine.The flavor of the soft drink sometimes comes from a mixture of vanilla, cinnamon, and citrus flavorings. The name comes from the kola nuts that were originally used as the source of caffeine.
Cola drinks may be sweetened with sugar, corn syrup or an artificial sweetener depending on product and market. Caffeine-free cola drinks are also available.
Recently a study shows that women who want to keep their bones strong may want to keep their cola consumption to a minimum.
In a study of more than 2,500 adults, Dr. Katherine L. Tucker of Tufts University in Boston and colleagues found that women who consumed cola daily had lower bone mineral density (BMD) in their hips than those who drank less than one serving of cola a month.
“Because BMD is strongly linked with fracture risk, and because cola is a popular beverage, this is of considerable public health importance,” the authors write in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition.
Studies in teen girls have tied heavy soft drink consumption to fractures and lower BMD, the researchers note, but it is not clear if this is because they’re drinking less milk, or if it is due to any harmful effects of soda itself.
To investigate this question in adults, the researchers measured BMD in the spine and at three points on the hips in 1,413 women and 1,125 men participating in a study of the bone-thinning disease osteoporosis.
While there was no association between soft drinks in general and BMD, the researchers found that women who drank the most cola had significantly less dense bones in their hips. The greater their intake, the thinner the bones, and the relationship was seen for diet, regular, and non-caffeinated colas.
Cola consumption had no effect on BMD in men.
Women who drank more cola did not drink less milk, but they did consume less calcium and had lower intakes of phosphorus in relation to calcium. Cola contains phosphoric acid, the researchers note, which impairs calcium absorption and increases excretion of the mineral. Caffeine has also been linked to osteoporosis, they add.
“No evidence exists that occasional use of carbonated beverages, including cola, is detrimental to bone,” they note. “However, unless additional evidence rules out an effect, women who are concerned about osteoporosis may want to avoid the regular use of cola beverages.”
Osteoporosis is a disease of bone in which the bone mineral density (BMD) is reduced, bone microarchitecture is disrupted, and the amount and variety of non-collagenous proteins in bone is changed.Osteoporotic bones are more susceptible to fracture.
Osteoporosis is defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as either a bone mineral density 2.5 standard deviations below peak bone mass (20-year-old person standard) as measured by DXA, or any fragility fracture. While treatment modalities are becoming available, prevention is still the most important way to reduce fracture. Due to its hormonal component, more women, particularly after menopause, suffer from osteoporosis than men.